Aim. To assess the effect of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on pregnancy, early neonatal period, evaluate the trends of changes in anthropometric parameters and the metabolic status of children in the first year of life.
Materials and methods. The study was carried out in two stages. The first stage included 200 patients: 157 children born from pregnancies with GDM, 43 children from pregnancies without GDM. An analysis of a number of mothers conditions, early neonatal period and anthropometric parameters of the children were evaluated. The second stage of the survey included 52 children from pregnancies with GDM. During the first year of life, anthropometric trends and metabolic parameters of all children were determined and evaluated. Comparison of indicators was carried out depending on the availability of insulin therapy and the achievement of target levels of glycemia of the mother during pregnancy.
Results. GDM is associated with an increase in obstetric injury, neonatal hypoglycemia and a decrease in breastfeeding in the early neonatal period. Newborns born to mothers with GDM seem to have no features, typical to type 1 or 2 diabetes fetopathy. Macrosomia at birth is a rare condition. During the 1st year of life gain of length decreases and gain of weight increases. At the first 12 months of life children to GDM pregnancy didn`t have any disturbances in metabolism of glucose and lipids regardless of compensation of GDM and therapy during pregnancy.
Key words: gestational diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia, fetal programming, macrosomy, insulin, diet therapy, diabetic fetopathy.
About the Author
Almazov National Medical Research Centre of the Ministry of Health. 2 Akkuratova st., Saint Petersburg,
197341, Russian Federation
2. The HAPO Study Cooperative Research Group. Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study: Associations With Neonatal Anthropometrics. Diabetes 2009; 58 (2): 453–9. DOI: 10.2337/db08-1112
3. Clausen TD, Mathiesen ER, Hansen T et al. Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94: 2464–70. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2009-0305
4. Clausen TD, Mathiesen ER, Hansen T et al. High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes: the role of intrauterine hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 340–6. DOI: 10.2337/dc07-1596
5. Landon MB, Rice MM, Varner MW et al. Mild gestational diabetes mellitus and long-term child health. Diabetes Care 2015; 38: 445–52. DOI: 10.2337/dc14-2874
6. Villar J, Cheikh Ismail L, Victora CG et al. International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. Lancet 2014; 384 (9946): 857–68. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60932-6
7. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2006.
8. Hod M, Kapur A, Sacks DA et al. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Initiative on gestational diabetes mellitus: A pragmatic guide for diagnosis, management, and care. Int J Gynecol Obstet 2015; 131 (Suppl. 3): S173–S211. DOI: 10.1016/S0020-7292(15)30033-3
For citation:Masel A.S., Kaprior E.V., Tkachuk A.S. et al. Trends in physical development and metabolic status of children born to women with gestational diabetes during the first year of life Pediatrics. Consilium Medicum. 2019; 1: 94–99. DOI: 10.26442/26586630.2019.1.190239Founder:
ZAO Medicinskie izdaniya
«CONSILIUM MEDICUM» L.L.C.
Post address: 127055, P.O. Box 97, Moscow, Russian Federation