Results of a survey of mothers helped to clarify the reasons for the "failure" of breastfeeding in the Russian Federation

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Abstract

Background. Breast milk is the most important food for the infant. A strong body of evidence now exists to show the health benefits of breastfeeding (BF) for infants. There is a growing conviction among some of today's young mothers to remain naturally breastfed and to fight for every drop of milk. However, despite UNICEF's investment in programmes to support the sustainability of breastfeeding, there is no consistent trend towards increased longevity.

Aim. We seek to understand in detail the reasons behind the obstacles to successful, long-term breastfeeding in every single region of Russia.

Materials and methods. We surveyed 801 women who had completed breastfeeding and selected the most comprehensive 459 questionnaires.

Results. Analysis of the obtained data allowed us to identify a number of predictors of premature lactation completion, to identify conditions under which women are able to breastfeed their infants for a long time, and to reveal a number of "pain points" of BF in our country.

Conclusion. We call upon paediatricians to improve their knowledge and to become specialists in the area of breastfeeding by focusing their preventive work on safeguarding and supporting breastfeeding.

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About the authors

Anastasiia E. Kuchina

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Email: kuchina_doc@mail.ru

Graduate Student

Russian Federation, Moscow

Irina N. Zakharova

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Author for correspondence.
Email: zakharova-rmapo@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4200-4598

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

Russian Federation, Moscow

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
Action
1. Fig. 1. Global Breastfeeding Collective (GBC) 2018 report [31].

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2. Fig. 2. GBS report 2021 [32].

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3. Fig. 3. Frequency of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) of children under 6 months of age worldwide [33].

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4. Fig. 4. The global incidence of early initiation of BF (1 hour after birth).

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5. Fig. 5. Distribution of responses (number of children, ordinate axis) to the question about the duration of BF in months (abscissa axis).

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6. Fig. 6. Comparison of Kaplan-Meier estimates of the duration of BF for the whole period considered (more than 2 years) for primiparous and re-pariparous women (p=0.02).

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7. Fig. 7. Comparison of Kaplan-Meier estimates of BF duration for the period up to 12 months of lactation for first-born and re-born women (p=0.07).

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8. Fig. 8. Comparison of Kaplan-Meier estimates of duration of EBF for first and second born women (p=0.24).

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9. Fig. 9. Dependence of BF duration on maternal age: line – linear regression of duration on age; β – regression coefficient; p – statistical significance.

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10. Fig. 10. Difference in Kaplan-Meier estimates of the duration of BF over the entire period (up to more than 2 years) for natural childbirth, planned CS, and emergency CS (p=0.76).

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11. Fig. 11. Difference in Kaplan-Meier estimates of the duration of BF up to 1 year for natural childbirth, planned CS, emergency CS (p=0.041).

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12. Fig. 12. Difference in Kaplan-Meier estimates of BF duration to 1 year for natural childbirth (cs=0), planned and emergency CS (cs=1) [p=0.016].

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13. Fig. 13. Differences in Kaplan-Meier estimates of the impact of lactastasis/mastitis, cracked nipples, hypogalactia, other difficulties on the entire duration of the BF (up to 2+ years) [p<0.0001].

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14. Fig. 14. Differences in Kaplan-Meier estimates of the impact of lactastasis/mastitis, cracked nipples, hypogalactia, other difficulties on the whole period of pregnancy up to 1 year (p<0.0001).

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15. Fig. 15. Differences in Kaplan-Meier estimates of the impact of care (paediatrician; no referral; gynaecologist; BF consultant) on the duration of EBF (p=0.002).

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16. Fig. 16. Differences in Kaplan-Meier estimates of the impact of care (paediatrician; did not seek specialist care; gynaecologist; BF consultant) on the duration of the entire BF period (over 2 years) [p=0.00057].

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17. Fig. 17. Differences in Kaplan-Meier estimates of the impact of care (paediatrician; did not seek specialist care; gynaecologist; BF consultant) on the duration of BF up to 1 year (p=0.00017).

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