Polyunsaturated fatty acids: omega-3 and omega-6 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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Abstract

The history of the study of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) began over 100 years ago. In 1909. P. Hartley isolated arachidonic acid. Later, 21 years later, Burr and Burr in 1930 showed its positive effect on the growth and development of rats. The important thing about this work was that after reintroduction of PUFAs into the diet of rodents, body functions began to recover. It took over 60 years from the time of the discovery of arachidonic acid to prove its effect on the cardiovascular system. Today, research into the effects of long-chain PUFAs on human health, intelligence, the immune system, neuronal connections, the course of pregnancy and infant health has led to recommendations for the widespread use of foods or supplements containing omega-3 PUFAs. Unbalanced diets in children and adolescents, selective appetite, and eating disorders lead to the development of deficit conditions, cognitive impairment, obesity, and metabolic syndrome with liver damage. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are asymptomatic in the early stages, but it is during this period that the prognosis in children can be changed. This article reviews international recommendations for the integrated use of long-chain PUFAs in the treatment of NAFLD and NASH in children. Supplementation of the diet with high-quality purified fish oil replenishes the requirement, improves disease prognosis, reduces insulin resistance and the level of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD and NASH.

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About the authors

Irina V. Berezhnaya

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Email: berezhnaya-irina26@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5684-7575

Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Irina N. Zakharova

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Author for correspondence.
Email: zakharova-rmapo@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4200-4598

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

Russian Federation, Moscow

Mariia A. Simakova

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Email: simakova131@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7994-3751

Graduate Student

Russian Federation, Moscow

Aleksandra I. Sgibneva

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Email: zakharova-rmapo@yandex.ru

Resident

Russian Federation, Moscow

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