The role of ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of atherogenic cardiovascular diseases starting in childhood

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Abstract

Diseases of the cardiovascular system are one of the main causes of morbidity, disability and mortality. One of the most significant risk factors for their development is atherogenic dyslipidemia. Atherosclerotic vascular damage occurs long before clinical manifestation and often begins to progress as early as childhood. This is why children represent the most important cohort for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases of atherosclerotic genesis. Studies show that taking ω₃-polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease in adults and children. The effect is achieved by multidirectional effects on risk factors such as insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, arterial hypertension, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. In children with primary dyslipidemia (heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia) taking ω₃-polyunsaturated fatty acids leads to normalization of serum triglycerides and a moderate decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The most significant therapeutic and prophylactic effects are observed in patients with secondary dyslipidemias caused by obesity and diabetes mellitus, when, besides the decrease in triglycerides and the increase in HDL cholesterol, ω₃-polyunsaturated fatty acids increase the insulin sensitivity of cells and tissue, body weight reduction, increase in muscle mass, stabilization of blood pressure and improvement of liver function are observed. Considering pleiotropic protective effect and good tolerability, ω₃-polyunsaturated fatty acids can be widely used for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in children and adolescents.

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Irina N. Zakharova

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Author for correspondence.
Email: zakharova-rmapo@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4200-4598

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

Russian Federation, Moscow

Ismail M. Osmanov

Bashlyaeva Children's City Clinical Hospital

Email: dgkb-bashlyaevoy@zdrav.mos.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3181-9601

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

Russian Federation, Moscow

Irina I. Pshenichnikova

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Email: PshenichnikovaII@rmapo.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0058-3803

Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Ekaterina V. Skorobogatova

Bashlyaeva Children's City Clinical Hospital

Email: dgkb-bashlyaevoy@zdrav.mos.ru

Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Yulia V. Koba

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Email: yuliakoba777@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7902-8281

Clinical Resident

Russian Federation, Moscow

Irina S. Kuznetsova

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Email: doctor_irina_kuznetsova@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5164-682X

Clinical Resident

Russian Federation, Moscow

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