Features of respiratory disorders and vitamin D status in preterm infants with a gestational age of more than 32 weeks

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Abstract

Background. Preterm infants are at high risk for respiratory distress and vitamin D deficiency, which may be associated with a need for intensive care and long-term respiratory support.

Aim. To study the features of respiratory disorders and vitamin D status in preterm infants with a gestational age of more than 32 weeks.

Materials and methods. The object of the study were 64 moderate and late preterm infants with respiratory disorders and their mothers. The level of 25(OH)D in cord blood serum was determined by enzyme immunoassay.

Results. 60.9% of children were diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome (Group 1), 39.1% had congenital pneumonia (Group 2). Mothers of all children had a high incidence of chronic diseases and pregnancy complications. Hypovitaminosis D was detected in 71.8–88% of newborns of both groups, mainly at the stage of deficiency. The median concentrations of 25(OH)D in cord blood serum were 15.41 [12.49–34.25] ng/ml in the 1st group of newborns, and 18.42 [14.01–23.44] ng/mL in the 2nd group. The need for exogenous surfactant administration and CPAP respiratory therapy is significantly higher in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. Children with congenital pneumonia significantly more often required mechanical ventilation, and they also had a longer total duration of respiratory support in the form of humidified oxygen supplementation. The duration of inpatient treatment in children of both groups with hypovitaminosis D was significantly higher compared to newborns with adequate levels of vitamin D.

Conclusion. Moderate and late preterm infants with respiratory problems should be identified at high risk for hypovitaminosis D, screened for blood levels of 25(OH)D, and developed optimal vitamin D supplementation regimens a promising direction to reduce the risk of preterm birth, neonatal morbidity and reduce the time of inpatient treatment of respiratory disorders.

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About the authors

Ekaterina S. Pankratova

Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University

Email: cat9105@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5761-1502

Assistant of Professor

Russian Federation, Saratov

Yurii V. Chernenkov

Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University

Email: chernenkov64@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6896-7563

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

Russian Federation, Saratov

Olga S. Panina

Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University

Email: olga.panina.74@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3387-4321

Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Saratov

Natalia A. Kurmacheva

Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: kurmna@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2948-9439

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

Russian Federation, Saratov

Natalia A. Kuznetsova

Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University

Email: kuznetsova.ntalia@yandex.ru

Research Assistant

Russian Federation, Saratov

Timofey E. Pylaev

Razumovsky Saratov State Medical University

Email: pylaev.te@staff.sgmu.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2701-3333

Cand. Sci. (Biol.)

Russian Federation, Saratov

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