Vitamin D as the essential immunonutrient – the evidence base update: A review

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Abstract

The micronutrient status plays a key role for adequate immune response, including in diseases caused by respiratory viruses. Numerous studies conducted since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, examining the impact of micronutrient availability, have shown their importance in the prevention of this disease. The largest number of publications is devoted to vitamin D. As a result, in less than two years, 17 meta-analyses and analytical reviews were published on the role of vitamin D and the availability of this micronutrient in various population groups in reducing the incidence, incidence of severe forms of COVID-19 and mortality. This review summarizes the results of published meta-analyses and systematic reviews. The analysis of literature data confirms that vitamin D has the highest evidence base as a micronutrient that reduces the risk of disease and the occurrence of severe forms of COVID-19. It also provides up-to-date recommendations on vitamin D supplementation for adult and pediatric patients.

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About the authors

Svetlana G. Makarova

National Medical Research Center for Children's Health; Lomonosov Moscow State University

Author for correspondence.
Email: sm27@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3056-403X

D. Sci. (Med.), National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Lomonosov Moscow State University

Russian Federation, Moscow; Moscow

Evgeny E. Emelyashenkov

National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Email: dkswdsman@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0995-4260

Graduate Student, National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Russian Federation, Moscow

Dmitry S. Yasakov

National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Email: dmyasakov@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1330-2828

Cand. Sci. (Med.), National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Russian Federation, Moscow

Irina Yu. Pronina

National Medical Research Center for Children's Health; Endocrinology Research Centre

Email: krapchatovaiv@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3306-6869

Res. Assist., National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Endocrinology Research Centre

Russian Federation, Moscow; Moscow

Oksana A. Ereshko

National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Email: sm27@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1650-652X

Cand. Sci. (Med.), National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Russian Federation, Moscow

Irina G. Gordeeva

National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Email: sm27@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6658-0624

Res. Assist., National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Russian Federation, Moscow

Albina A. Galimova

National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Email: albina86@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6701-3872

Res. Assist., National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Russian Federation, Moscow

Tamara R. Chumbadze

National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Email: tamararob@rambler.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8172-5710
Scopus Author ID: 57193925434

Cand. Sci. (Med.), National Medical Research Center for Children's Health

Russian Federation, Moscow

Ayina M. Lebedeva

National Medical Research Center for Children's Health; Federal Research Center of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety

Email: sm27@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6469-0766

laboratory assistant, National Medical Research Center for Children's Health, Federal Research Center of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety

Russian Federation, Moscow; Moscow

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