Growth retardation in children with allergies: A review

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The increase in the prevalence of food allergies among children in recent years is evident with onset in infancy and childhood in most cases. The full value of the elimination diet, the time before diagnosis, and the severity of allergic inflammation can affect the nutritional status of the children and, ultimately, their linear growth. Age-correspondent height is one of the most important indicators of a child's health and well-being, especially in the first few years of life when energy and nutrient requirements per body weight are highest. Insufficient nutrient intake in children with food allergies can impair growth, and developmental delay in infancy and early childhood can have long-term sequelae. It is essential to understand the frequency of developmental retardation in kids with food allergies, the most prevalent allergen that causes it, and whether or not growth retardation may be reversed with effective diet therapy. Based on the studies presented in the article, the following key provisions were identified: of the entire spectrum of food allergens, cow milk protein allergy (CMPA) has the most significant effect on growth; the impact of CMPA on the formation of improper eating habits is also high; careful management of a child with CMPA with adequate diet therapy and timely re-introduced dairy products to induce tolerance can reduce the adverse effect of CMPA on growth and nutrition; apparently, multiple food allergies also harm growth; a nutritionist should more often observe children with multiple food allergies; regular assessment of growth and diet with individual nutrition recommendations to date has shown the best results in achieving the growth target of children with food allergies.

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About the authors

Irina N. Zakharova

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4200-4598

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

Russian Federation, Moscow

Irina V. Berezhnaya

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2847-6268

Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Maria A. Simakova

Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7994-3751

Graduate Student

Russian Federation, Moscow


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