Novel coronavirus infection in childhood: literature review and clinical observation

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Abstract


The article presents a review of the literature and a clinical observation of a case of a severe form of the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 in an 8-year-old child, which was complicated by a bacterial infection. The relevance of this clinical case is associated with the novelty of the disease itself, the relative rarity of a severe form of a new coronavirus infection in childhood, the complexity of its treatment, and a combination of viral and bacterial inflammation of the lower respiratory tract.


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About the authors

Aleksandr B. Malakhov

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University); Morozov Children’s Clinical Hospital

Author for correspondence.
Email: alexis4591m@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2686-8284

Russian Federation, Moscow

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

Tatiana A. Gutyrchik

Morozov Children’s Clinical Hospital

Email: tanya_2904@list.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8421-1694

Russian Federation, Moscow

Graduate Student

Elmira R. Samitova

Bashlyaeva Children’s City Clinical Hospital

Email: samitova_rudn@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0380-7515

Russian Federation, Moscow

Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Ivan A. Dronov

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: dronow@yandex.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6304-0355

Russian Federation, Moscow

Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Ismail M. Osmanov

Bashlyaeva Children’s City Clinical Hospital

Email: osmanovim@zdrav.mos.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3181-9601

Russian Federation, Moscow

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

Liudmila N. Mazankova

Bashlyaeva Children’s City Clinical Hospital; Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education

Email: mazankova@list.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0895-6707

Russian Federation, Moscow

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof.

Aleksei A. Nedostoev

Bashlyaeva Children’s City Clinical Hospital

Email: alex55now@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0849-3674

Russian Federation, Moscow

Department Head

Margarita A. Antsupova

Bashlyaeva Children’s City Clinical Hospital

Email: orit-inf@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2142-5641

Russian Federation, Moscow

Department Head

Natalia G. Kolosova

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: kolosovan@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5071-9302

Russian Federation, Moscow

Cand. Sci. (Med.)

References

  1. World Health Organization (WHO). Pneumonia of unknown cause – China. 2020. https://www.who.int/csr/don/05-january-2020-pneumonia-of-unkown-cause-china/en/
  2. World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation reports. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports
  3. Available from: https://systems.jhu.edu/research/public-health/ncov/
  4. World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
  5. Информация о случаях пневмонии, вызванной 2019-nCOV. https://www.rospotrebnadzor.ru/region/korono_virus/epid.php [Informatsiia o sluchaiakh pnevmonii, vyzvannoi 2019-nCOV. https://www.rospotrebnadzor.ru/region/korono_virus/epid.php (in Russian).]
  6. Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Among Children in China. Pediatrics 2020; 145 (6): e20200702.
  7. The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) – China, 2020. China CDC Weekly 2020; 2 (8): 113–22.
  8. Liu W, Zhang Q, Chen J et al. Detection of COVID-19 in Children in Early January 2020 in Wuhan, China. N Engl J Med 2020; 382 (14): 1370–1.
  9. Li W, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus. Nature 2003; 426 (6965): 450–4.
  10. Zhou P, Yang X, Wang X et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 2020; 579 (7798): 270–3.
  11. Wrapp D, Wang N, Corbett K et al. Cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV spike in the prefusion conformation. Science 2020; 13; 367 (6483): 1260–3.
  12. Fang F, Lu X. Facing the pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus infections: the pediatric perspectives. Chinese J Pediatrics 2020; 2; 58 (0): E001.
  13. Grifoni A, Weiskopf D, Ramirez SI et al. Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals. Cell 2020; 25; 181 (7): 1489–501.e15.
  14. Методические рекомендации особенности клинических проявлений и лечения заболевания, вызванного новой коронавирусной инфекции (COVID-19) у детей. Версия 2 (03.07.2020); утв. Минздравом России. [Methodical recommendations on the features of clinical manifestations and treatment of the disease caused by a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in children. Version 2 (07.03.2020); approved by the Ministry of Health of Russia (in Russian).]
  15. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents temporally related to COVID-19 WHO, Scientific Brief, 15 May 2020.

Supplementary files

Supplementary Files Action
1.
Fig. 1. CT scan of the chest from 25.06.2020.

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2.
Fig. 2. CT scan of the chest organs from 06.07.2020.

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3.
Fig. 3. CT scan of the chest organs from 21.09.2020.

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4.
Fig. 4. Scheme of a clinical case: a – before hospitalization in a specialized hospital; b – in a specialized hospital.

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