Immunity, breast milk and infant formula: finding the optimal balance

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Abstract

Mother's milk is a unique product for children in the first and second year of life. In addition to the components that provide the energy needs of the baby, breast milk contains many biologically active compounds, microorganisms, stem cells that influence the maturation of organs and systems, including the immune system. Even in the most advanced artificial formula, it is impossible to replicate the composition and effects of breast milk completely. Nevertheless, it is possible to introduce some components into the formula that have a positive effect on the developing immune system. These include fat components, in particular long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and β-palmitate, nucleotides, the most valuable of which are adenosine, guanine, uridine, cytidine and inosine monophosphates, oligosaccharides, probiotics, macro- and microelements. Goat's milk is an attractive natural product for the production of quality infant formula. Enriching milk formulas based on goat's milk with components with immunomodulatory functions homologous to those of breast milk makes it possible to significantly reduce the adverse effects of artificial feeding of infants, as well as to achieve a positive immunomodulatory effect. Kabrita® adapted goat milk formula contains all the beneficial natural components of goat milk, adapted by the manufacturer according to the protein, fat, carbohydrate, micro- and macronutrient composition, with the addition of probiotic complex BB-12 and lipid complex DigestX®.

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About the authors

Angelina V. Meleshkina

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Author for correspondence.
Email: meleshkina.angel@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4125-0335

Cand. Sci. (Med.), Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Natalia A. Geppe

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: geppe@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0547-3686

D. Sci. (Med.), Prof., Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Svetlana N. Chebysheva

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: svetamma@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5669-4214

Cand. Sci. (Med.), Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Marina D. Velikoretskaia

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: meleshkina.angel@mail.ru

Cand. Sci. (Med.), Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Russian Federation, Moscow

Darima V. Dagbaeva

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: meleshkina.angel@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2954-3354

Graduate Student, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Russian Federation, Moscow

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
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1. Fig. 1. Effect of infant formula with high palmitate content on infant development and health [27].

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2. Fig. 2. Content of natural nucleotides in cow's and goat's milk formula.

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